Violence committed in opposition to women by their present or former intimate partners is a problem that knows no geographic borders. There are still some countries, nonetheless, the place the problem of battered women remains relatively invisible and, as such, it is usually ignored and underreported. For example, very restricted systematic research has been accomplished in Greece and Albania .
Only 270 cases had been reported to the police; 183 led to the arrest of an offender; and fewer than 10 offenders were convicted of the rape crime and sent to a detention facility . The results of the financial disaster and the undertaken austerity measures have been devastating for the Greek inhabitants both materially and psychologically . Between 2008 and 2011, the unemployment rate has nearly doubled for native Greeks (8.3% to fifteen.9%) and almost tripled for immigrants (7.4% to 19.8%) . Since the actual property market crashed, the construction sector—where a big proportion of male immigrants had been employed—was hit very exhausting. A large proportion of immigrants confronted the specter of losing their legal status since renewing their stay permits was related to having legal employment and insurance coverage . Many immigrants face the alternative of remaining in Greece in a standing of illegality or returning to their residence nation. According to the latest research and media reviews, many Albanian immigrants are selecting the latter .
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However, Albanian women have been in a position to hold on to unskilled and low paid job in cleansing and different service sectors. Consequently, many respondents discussed the intimate companion violence in Albanian family as a result of shifting gender roles and viewing violence as a method of reestablishing management over women and family points. In addition, Albanian immigrant women had been regularly employed within the informal sector—performing domestic work that was not attractive for the native inhabitants due to its associated low salaries and long working hours. Since Albanian immigrant women typically lacked essential work permits as a result of their immigrant status, employment within the casual, or underground, financial system was their only different. However, work in the underground economic system typically entails an absence of legal safety from employers’ exploitation, no entry to welfare benefits, and low salary. In addition, the lengthy work hours and the usually poor working conditions of immigrant women contributed to their social isolation. Immigrant women are particularly weak when trapped in violent relationships, afraid to achieve for assist due to language and cultural barriers, worry of deportation and different authorized penalties, and have a poor understanding of the law within the host nations .
Underlining the dangers faced by women seeking to safe their property rights in Albania, Shpresa stated that her sons had additionally been threatened with violence. Kurti stated that although by regulation, women who divorce get half of their household’s property, this course of takes years and requires authorized expenses that some women can not afford. Sociologist Zyhdi Dervishi pointed out that girls who seek to say their property rights are often viewed with prejudice within Albanian society.
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Stemming from the geographic position of Albania, the 2 major destination international locations for migration had been Italy and Greece . While the previous might need been the preferred selection for a lot of Albanians, the overwhelming majority have settled in Greece. Interestingly, the bulk of Albanian immigration to Greece in the 1990s was through unlawful channels. Barjaba writes that “in the course of the 1997–1998 in Italy, there was 1 unlawful immigrant for each two authorized immigrants; while…in Greece, there have been 40 illegal immigrants for every authorized immigrant” (, p. sixty one). This imbalance to a big extent was due to the underdevelopment and deficiency of Greek immigration insurance policies.
The consensus is that, general and at least where the economy is concerned, migration has had beneficial effects. Second, many small and medium businesses have been capable of improve their competitiveness and income relying on immigrant assist. Third, the country’s agricultural sector has considerably benefitted from immigrant employees albanian dating sites. Finally, researchers also cite among the advantages “the dampening of inflationary pressures” and the strengthening, though quick term, of the social safety system . An important caveat is that almost all of those studies have been carried out prior to the Greek economic crisis of 2008–2009.
True estimates of IPV in Greece stay unknown since no comprehensive nationwide data about victims or the variety of instances of home violence is collected. Data from the governmental businesses are piecemeal, not very informative and underestimate the extent of the problem. Conversely, the World Organization against Torture estimated that there have been 4500 rape instances yearly .
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Consequently, it grew to become harder for immigrant men to accomplish their culturally expected roles of protectors and major breadwinners. When the patriarchal group of the household is crumbling, domestic violence might turn out to be a way of implementing women’s conformity. As mentioned earlier, many Albanian men employed in agriculture and development sectors had lost their jobs after the Greek financial disaster.
Greek social workers in Wasileski’s study raised severe concern about energy imbalances during mediation and identified the incompetence of the one that led the mediation , and the poor quality of remedy provided to the batterer . The findings additionally recommend that battered women were very reluctant to name the police (only 16.6% would accomplish that) but as a substitute were extra likely to report their abuse to family members or friends. When incidents of IPV had been reported, the cases had been normally considered as non-public issues by the legal justice system, and girls have been usually encouraged to settle the case via mediation procedures .
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In many instances, immigrant women are financially dependent on their spouses either because they lack work permits on account of their immigrant standing, or they are employed in the low skill, low paid casual economy. In flip, shelters and different public service providers are often mandated to report undocumented residents or they might threat shedding government funds or face financial sanctions . Interestingly, perception within the sanctity of the household was integrated into Greek home violence laws. Specifically, victims of IPV are offered a chance to solve “household problems” by way of a mediation process, a brand new establishment where the General Prosecutor brings the victim and the offender collectively, aiming to resolve the problem of violence. It is important to level out that this “mediation process” was not created in order to provide couples with the environment in which they'll resolve issues of divorce or youngster custody. The idea behind the “mediation course of” was to keep and save the household as a unit.